صفحه اصلی Articles English Translate of Abstracts of Farsi Articles in Quarterly No. 24

English Translate of Abstracts of Farsi Articles in Quarterly No. 24

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Baha’is in Iraq

BY: Mahdi Habibi, Hamid Farnaq

Abstract

Baha’i and the modern state of Iraq have interacted with each other since the beginning of their establishment. Baha’u’llah’s first destination outside of Iran was Ottoman Iraq, and his declaration as “Manifestation of God” began from a garden in Baghdad.

 A look at the development of Baha’ism during the British mandate in the region and the extensive support for Baha’ism from the time of the establishment of the Iraqi government to the period of extensive Baha’i activities in the Kurdistan region requires a proper historical and social understanding of the past’s Baha’i activities and paying attention to its legalistic slogans today.

Due to the low interest of Iraqis in Baha’i, the sending of Baha’i immigrants to Iraq has happened for the growth of Baha’i, which is considered as the infrastructure of the organization’s expansion. In the last decade, Baha’i, which has again speeded up its propaganda-organizational activity, has divided the country of Iraq into about 30 clusters. On the other hand, it is extremely important to examine how the Baha’is interacts with the civil laws of Iraq as a Muslim country with high civil liberties. In a country where religious minorities have a defined place in its civil laws and anti-Islamic activities are clearly criminalized and interfaith relations are methodical, the performance of Baha’is as a non-Muslim group can be examined. This article examines the situation of Baha’ism in Iraq according to the conducted researches and the extraction of various data.

Keywords

Baha’ism in Iraq, prohibition of propaganda and organization in Iraq, Kurdistan Region, clustering of Iraq.

Muhammad Ghazali and Baha’i

By: Abdul Hossein Fakhari, Neda Shahrestani

Abstract

Sheikh Mohammad Ghazali, who is one of the greatest contemporary jurists and advocates and teachers of reformism, was a professor at Umm al-Qora University in Mecca and a professor at the Faculty of Sharia in Qatar. In 1401/A.H- 1981, he was appointed to the position of the deputy of the Egyptian Ministry of Endowments. He was also the head of the scientific council of Prince Abdul Qadir Algeria Islamic University of Algeria for five years. More than fifty books have been published by him. He was also famous for his literary style of writing and was known as in charge of Da’wah, (religious propagation and dissemination of Islam)

One of Sheikh Mohammad Ghazali’s books is “Defense of Faith and Shari’ah”, which in it deals with colonial religions and the introduction of Baha’ism. In this book, he introduces Baha’ism as a colonial religion that did many services to England and played an important role in the occupation of Palestine. It also mentions the importance of the two rulings of Hajj and Jihad, which the Baha’i religion has banned them. In addition, Abdu’l-Bahá’s hypocrisy and his lack of truthfulness in facing Muhammad Abdu and going to the Muslim Friday prayers until the last week of his life are also expressed. In the following, some of the services that Baha’ism has given to colonization have been mentioned. In this article, we have provided the translation of this section of the above mentioned book.

Keywords

Muhammad Ghazali, Baha’ism, colonialism, hypocrisy, anti-Islamism

Distortion of the Old and New Testament

By: Hamid Sedehi

Abstract

In the following article, the concept of distortion of Christian and Jewish scriptures has been investigated. The importance of this matter is because Baha’u’llah has pointed out in his works that the holy books are all immune to distortion and no change is possible in them. In this article, we have examined this claim. It has been argued that if all the Holy Books are immune from distortion, then there should not be any conflict between these holy texts, because they all came from the same source, but these conflicts exist and as a result, it is not considered immunity from distortion for all the holy books. We have also examined the verses of the Qur’an that indicate distortion. Finally, this article shows that Baha’u’llah’s claim is not true.

Keywords

Distortion of holy books, Baha’u’llah, Iqan, Torah, Bible

The Baha’is from the Perspective of Christian Critics: Part IV, Francis Beckwith

By: Hamid Farnaq – senior expert in international law

Abstract

Francis Beckwith, born in 1960 in New York, is an American philosopher, researcher, speaker, writer and lecturer. He is currently Professor of Philosophy, Religion-Government Studies, Comparative Studies of Religions, Political Science, and Associate Director of the Graduate Program in Philosophy at Baylor University. He received his doctorate and master’s degrees in philosophy from Fordham University, and his master’s degree in jurisprudence from Washington University School of Law (St. Louis). A condensed version of Beckwith’s 1984 master’s thesis was published as a book, Baha’i: A Christian Response, by Bethany House. Beckwith considers Baha’ism as an opportunistic sect focused on political power (cult). In his research, he discussed the following points, and by presenting Baha’i views and Christian beliefs and documents, he disregarded Baha’i:

– Denial of the special nature of the birth and mission of Jesus Christ, and the physical ascension and physical return of Christ.

– Commentary according to Abdu’l-Bahá and the Baha’i missionaries, and attributing weak and illegal content to the books of the Old and New Testaments to prove that Baha’u’llah is the return of Jesus Christ in a new physical form!

– The internal contradictions of the theological claims of the Baha’i leaders regarding the divine manifestations and their teachings.

– Baha’i has no new message for modern and civilized man. Its possible appropriate literature and rulings are adaptations of the teachings and rulings of Abrahamic religions; and special Baha’i rules have a medieval and uncivilized aspect. Therefore, although the Baha’is have translated their preaching pamphlets into more than 800 common and local languages, but , strongly prevent the translation of the Book of Baha’i rules – Kitab Aqdas – which is the only heavenly book of Mirza Hossein Ali Nouri and for the next nine centuries, in the golden age of Baha’i rule all over the world, the life-giving laws of human society knowledge.

Key words

Baha’ism, Christianity, self-interpretation, Baha’i and Christian theology, rulings

Modern schools and new educational system in contemporary Iran (Criticizing the Baha’i claim in this regard)

BY :Mohammad Gogani, Hamid Farnaq

Abstract

Baha’i writers and missionaries claim that Baha’is pay special attention to education and that Baha’is are the pioneers and the first providers of modern science education and pioneers in the establishment of modern schools in Iran. However, the study of the history of the establishment of modern schools in Iran shows that the background of Iranians familiarity with European-style modern schools and the teaching of new sciences and the history of the establishment of modern schools in Iran are about eighty years before the establishment of the first modern-style Baha’i school in Iran, and this Baha’is claim is incorrect.

In this study, it was found that, firstly, the familiarity of Baha’is with modern sciences and new schools has nothing to do with the teachings and writings of the Bab, Bahaullah and Abdu’l-Baha’; Rather, Abdu’l-Bahá got acquainted with these schools by studying the publications and observing the European-style schools in the  territory; Therefore, the discussion of Baha’i pioneers in the establishment of new schools has no place.

Secondly, the main motivation of the Baha’i leaders to establish the school was to teach and convert Muslim students and influence their parents. Thirdly, because the Iranian Baha’is were not very familiar with new sciences, they asked for help from the American Baha’i National Assembly to establish and strengthen their school, and they sent some migrant women missionaries to Iran.

Keywords

Abdul-Baha, New Baha’i schools, Toraj Amini, Fazel Ghaibi, Fereydoun Vahman,

 Moojan Momen.

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